By Cher Ming Tan,Feifei He
Read or Download Electromigration Modeling at Circuit Layout Level (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology) PDF
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How can we understand that molecules relatively exist? a major clue got here from Brownian flow, an idea constructed in 1827 through botanist Robert Brown, who spotted that tiny gadgets like pollen grains shook and moved unevenly while seen lower than a microscope. approximately eighty years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein defined this "Brownian movement" because the results of bombardment by means of molecules.
Built-in circuit (IC) reliability is of accelerating crisis in present-day IC know-how the place the interconnect disasters considerably raises the failure cost for ICs with reducing interconnect size and extending variety of interconnect degrees. Electromigration (EM) of interconnects has now turn into the dominant failure mechanism that determines the circuit reliability.
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